Both of the industry's standards for computing DPMO are now bundled together at a reduced cost. IPC-7912, Calculation of DPMO and Manufacturing Indices for Printed Board Assemblies, is the standard for benchmarking end-item DPMO and IPC-9261, In-Process DPMO and Estimated Yield for PWAs, defines the process for evaluating any stage in the assembly process. IPC-7912 is 13 pages. Released July 2000. IPC-9261 is 14 pages. Released March 2002.